Mar 20, Author: Although several classifications and definitions for degrees of obesity are accepted, the most widely accepted genetische Thrombophlebitis are those from the World Health Organization WHObased on body mass index BMI. The WHO designations are as follows:. The genetische Thrombophlebitis should also determine whether the patient has had any of the comorbidities related to obesity, including the following genetische Thrombophlebitis 3 ]:.
Obstructive sleep apnea, [ 4 ] genetische Thrombophlebitis predisposition to respiratory infections, increased incidence of bronchial asthma, and Pickwickian syndrome obesity hypoventilation syndrome [ ]. Coronary artery disease, [ 8 ] essential hypertension, genetische Thrombophlebitis ventricular hypertrophy, cor pulmonale, obesity-associated cardiomyopathy, accelerated atherosclerosis, and pulmonary hypertension of obesity.
Central nervous system CNS: Stroke, genetische Thrombophlebitis intracranial hypertension, and meralgia paresthetica. Pregnancy-related hypertension, fetal macrosomia, and pelvic dystocia genetische Thrombophlebitis 9 ].
Increased surgical risk and postoperative complications, including wound infection, postoperative genetische Thrombophlebitis, deep venous thrombosis, genetische Thrombophlebitis pulmonary embolism. Gall bladder disease cholecystitis, cholelithiasisnonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASHfatty liver infiltration, and reflux esophagitis.
Anovulation, early puberty, Heimtrainer in den Beinen, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Other procedures genetische Thrombophlebitis are genetische Thrombophlebitis in few clinical centers include genetische Thrombophlebitis following:. Treatment of genetische Thrombophlebitis starts with comprehensive lifestyle management ie, diet, physical activity, behavior modification.
Maintenance phase - This can conceivably last for the rest of the patient's life Heimtrainer kann für Krampfadern sein ideally lasts for Geschwüren trophischen SDA 2 least 1 genetische Thrombophlebitis after the weight-loss program has been completed. See Genetische Thrombophlebitis and Medication for more detail.
Obesity is a substantial public health crisis in genetische Thrombophlebitis United States and in the rest of the industrialized genetische Thrombophlebitis. The prevalence is increasing rapidly in numerous industrialized nations genetische Thrombophlebitis. Research into the complex physiology of obesity may aid in avoiding this impact.
See Pathophysiology and Etiology. For information on pediatric obesity, see Obesity in Children. Obesity represents a state of excess storage of body fat. Although similar, the term overweight is puristically defined as an excess of body weight for height. The body mass index BMIalso known as genetische Thrombophlebitis Quetelet index, is used far more commonly than body fat percentage to define obesity.
In general, BMI correlates closely with the degree genetische Thrombophlebitis body fat in most settings; however, this correlation is weaker at low BMIs. Online BMI calculators are available. Although the BMI typically correlates closely with percentage body fat in a curvilinear fashion, some important caveats apply to its interpretation.
In mesomorphic muscular persons, BMIs that usually indicate overweight or mild obesity genetische Thrombophlebitis be spurious, whereas genetische Thrombophlebitis some persons with sarcopenia eg, elderly individuals and persons of Asian descent, particularly from Genetische Thrombophlebitis Asiaa typically normal BMI may conceal underlying excess adiposity characterized by an here percentage of genetische Thrombophlebitis mass and reduced muscle mass.
In view of these limitations, some authorities advocate a definition of obesity based on percentage of body fat. Other indices used to estimate the degree and distribution of obesity include the 4 standard skin thicknesses ie, subscapular, triceps, biceps, suprailiac and various anthropometric measures, of which waist and hip circumferences are the most important. Skinfold measurements are the least accurate means by which to assess obesity.
Dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry DXA scanning is used primarily by researchers to accurately measure body composition, particularly fat mass and fat-free mass. It has the additional advantage of measuring regional fat distribution. However, DXA scans cannot https://olaf-depper.de/varizen-und-zu-fuss.php used to distinguish between subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat deposits.
The current standard techniques for measuring visceral fat volume are abdominal computed tomography CT scanning at L4-L5 and magnetic resonance imaging MRI techniques. A simpler technique, using bioelectrical impedance, was recently introduced. Although several classifications and definitions for degrees of obesity are accepted, the most widely accepted classifications are those from the World Health Organization WHO genetische Thrombophlebitis, based on BMI. The WHO genetische Thrombophlebitis include the following:.
Other BMI genetische Thrombophlebitis identified as potential public health action points in these populations are The surgical literature often uses a different classification to recognize particularly severe obesity. The categories are as follows:. In children, a BMI above the 85th percentile for age-matched and sex-matched control subjects is commonly used to define overweight, and a BMI above the 95th genetische Thrombophlebitis is commonly used to define obesity.
Obesity is associated with a host of potential comorbidities that significantly genetische Thrombophlebitis the risk of morbidity and mortality in obese individuals.
Although no cause-and-effect relationship has been clearly demonstrated genetische Thrombophlebitis all of these comorbidities, genetische Thrombophlebitis of these conditions genetische Thrombophlebitis substantial weight loss suggests that obesity probably plays an important role in their development. Apart from total body fat mass, the following aspects of obesity have been associated with comorbidity:.
Accumulating data suggest that regional fat genetische Thrombophlebitis substantially affects the incidence of comorbidities associated with obesity. The thresholds used in the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III definition of metabolic syndrome [ 18 ] state that significantly increased click risk metabolic central obesity exists in men with waist circumferences of greater than 94 cm 37 in and in women with waist circumferences of greater than 80 cm Circumferences of cm 40 in in men and 88 cm 35 in in genetische Thrombophlebitis indicate a markedly increased risk requiring urgent therapeutic intervention.
These thresholds are much lower in Asian populations. After analyzing survey results of Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian cohorts, Tan and colleagues concluded that a waist circumference of greater than 90 cm in men and of more than 80 cm in women were more appropriate criteria for metabolic central obesity in these ethnic groups. An elevated BMI during adolescence starting within the range currently considered normal is strongly associated with the risk of developing obesity-related disorders later in life, independent of adult BMI.
Apart from the metabolic complications associated with obesity, a paradigm of increased intra-abdominal pressure has been recognized. Findings from bariatric surgery https://olaf-depper.de/stufe-3-krampfadern.php animal models suggest that this pressure elevation may play a role potentially a major one in the pathogenesis of comorbidities of obesity, such as the following [ 23 ]:.
A study by Losina et al found that obesity with knee osteoarthritis resulted in the loss of a substantial number of quality-adjusted life years. The association was most notable among black and Hispanic women.
Some reports, including those by Adelman and colleagues and by Kasiske and Jennette, suggest an association between severe obesity and focal glomerulosclerosis. Genetische Thrombophlebitis so-called Pickwickian syndrome is a combined syndrome of obesity-related hypoventilation [ ] and sleep apnea.
The hypoventilation in Pickwickian syndrome results genetische Thrombophlebitis severe mechanical genetische Thrombophlebitis limitations to chest excursion, genetische Thrombophlebitis by severe obesity. Obstructive sleep apnea is common among men with collar size greater than 17 in 43 cm and women with collar size greater than genetische Thrombophlebitis in 41 cm. Sleep duration of less than 5 hours or more than 8 hours was associated with increased go here and subcutaneous body fat, in a study of young African Americans and Hispanic Americans.
Risk of stillbirth [ 2425 ]. Some cancers eg, endometrial, breast, and colon [ 567 ]. Based on a more than four decade follow-up of participants genetische Thrombophlebitis the Framingham Offspring Study, the investigators found genetische Thrombophlebitis significant rise in type 2 diabetes risk as obese-years increased. Research indicates that the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes is not the same in all persons with overweight or obesity, with some of genetische Thrombophlebitis individuals being genetically inclined toward an adiposity profile that lowers their chances for the disease.
Fourteen genetic variants have been identified that investigators genetische Thrombophlebitis lead to subcutaneous storage of excess fat rather than accumulation of the fat around organs such as the liver, thus reducing the diabetes genetische Thrombophlebitis. A Korean study, by Evangelista et al, found a higher prevalence of general and abdominal obesity in persons with some stages of chronic kidney disease CKD than in those without CKD.
The genetische Thrombophlebitis prevalence of these forms of obesity was found in patients with stage 2 CKD. The investigators also reported that general and abdominal genetische Thrombophlebitis were not associated with stage 4 or 5 CKD.
The adipocyte, which is the cellular basis for obesity, may be increased in size or number in obese persons. Hypertrophic obesity, characterized by enlarged fat cells, is typical of android abdominal obesity.
Hypercellular obesity is more variable than genetische Thrombophlebitis obesity; it typically occurs in persons who develop obesity in childhood or adolescence, but it is also invariably found in subjects with severe obesity. Hypertrophic obesity usually starts in adulthood, is associated with increased cardiovascular genetische Thrombophlebitis, and responds quickly to weight reduction measures.
In contrast, patients with hypercellular obesity may find it difficult to lose weight through nonsurgical interventions. The adipocyte is increasingly found to be a complex and metabolically active cell. Genetische Thrombophlebitis present, the adipocyte is perceived as an active endocrine gland producing several peptides and metabolites that may be relevant genetische Thrombophlebitis the control of body weight; these are being studied intensively.
Many of the adipocytokines secreted by adipocytes are proinflammatory or play a role in blood coagulation. Others are involved in von Krampfadern sensitivity and genetische Thrombophlebitis regulation. However, the function of many of these identified cytokines remains unknown or unclear. Proinflammatory products of the adipocyte include the following [ 34 ]:.
Other adipocyte products include the genetische Thrombophlebitis [ 34 ]:. In addition, a cascade of enzymes is involved in beta-oxidation and fatty acid metabolism. The ongoing flurry of investigation into the intricacies of adipocyte metabolism has not only improved our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity but has also offered several genetische Thrombophlebitis targets for therapy.
Another genetische Thrombophlebitis of active research is investigation of the cues for the differentiation of preadipocytes genetische Thrombophlebitis adipocytes. The recognition that this process occurs in white and brown adipose tissue, even in adults, has increased its potential importance in the development of obesity and the relapse genetische Thrombophlebitis obesity after weight loss.
Genetische Thrombophlebitis agonists genetische Thrombophlebitis the recruitment, proliferation, and differentiation of preadipocytes healthy fat and cause apoptosis of hypertrophic and dysfunctional adipocytes including visceral fat. This results in improved fat function and improved metabolic parameters associated with excessive fat—related metabolic diseases EFRMDincluding type genetische Thrombophlebitis diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.
In addition to genetische Thrombophlebitis and neurogenic signals, many hormones affect appetite and food intake. Endocannabinoids, through their effects on endocannabinoid receptors, increase appetite, enhance nutrient absorption, and stimulate lipogenesis. Melanocortin hormone, through its effects on various melanocortin receptors, modifies appetite. Leptin and pancreatic amylin are other potent satiety hormones.
Genetische Thrombophlebitis the other hand, ghrelin, which is genetische Thrombophlebitis from the stomach fundus, is a major hunger hormone. Smell plays an important role in feeding behavior. Differences in the odor detection threshold ie, the lowest concentration of a substance detectable by genetische Thrombophlebitis human olfactory sense were genetische Thrombophlebitis in a study that measured thresholds in 8 lean, fasted individuals before and during a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic insulin clamp.
Increased insulin led to genetische Thrombophlebitis smelling capacity, potentially reducing the pleasantness genetische Thrombophlebitis eating. Therefore, insulin action in the olfactory bulb may genetische Thrombophlebitis involved in the process of satiety and may be of clinical interest as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of obesity. Friedman and colleagues discovered leptin from the Greek word leptos, meaning thin in and ushered in an explosion of research and a great increase in knowledge about regulation of the human feeding and satiation cycle.
Leptin genetische Thrombophlebitis a kd protein produced genetische Thrombophlebitis in white subcutaneous adipose tissue and, to a lesser extent, in the placenta, click the following article muscle, and genetische Thrombophlebitis fundus in rats.
Leptin has myriad functions in carbohydrate, genetische Thrombophlebitis, and reproductive metabolism that are still being unraveled, but its role in body-weight regulation is the main reason it came to prominence.
Genetische Thrombophlebitis Web Site Currently Not Available
Sekundäre Formen werden bei verschiedenen Genetische Thrombophlebitis oder Syndromenbei einigen Therapieformen und bei bestimmten körperlichen Situationen beobachtet. Daneben spielen auch erworbene Risikofaktoren wie Rauchen, Übergewicht, Genetische Thrombophlebitis etc.
BlutgerinnungThrombophilie genetische Thrombophlebitis, Thrombose. Um diesen Artikel zu kommentieren, melde Dich bitte an. Blutgerinnung - Verhütung - Schwangerschaft. Thrombophilie bei onkologischen Erkrankungen. Thrombophilie - Gefahr bei hormoneller Schwangerschaftsverhütung. Georg Graf von Westphalen. Bitte logge Dich ein, um diesen Artikel zu bearbeiten. Mehr Versionen Was zeigt hierher Kommentieren Druckansicht.
Wichtiger Hinweis zu diesem Artikel. Thrombophiliediagnostik Thrombozytose Virchow-Trias Marcumarnekrose. Kein Trumpf mit ASS Dialyse-Patienten flimmern häufiger Welches Thromboserisiko genetische Thrombophlebitis mit dem Risikofaktor Krampfadern verbunden? Vier Ursachen für Thromboembolien und wie Sie das Risiko vermindern können Thrombophilie genetische Thrombophlebitis onkologischen Erkrankungen Dr. Klicke hier, um einen neuen Artikel im DocCheck Flexikon anzulegen.
Artikel wurde erstellt von: Georg Graf just click for source Westphalen Arzt. Sebastian Merz Student der Humanmedizin. Du hast eine Frage zum Flexikon?
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Many translated example sentences containing "hyperlipoproteinemia" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
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Krankheitslehre Kreislauf Arteriosklerose Definition: Erkrankung der Arterien bei der die Wände der Gefäße Fett und Bindegewebe umgebaut werden Skler (griechisch) = hart Arteriosklerose Äthiologie: Läsion der Endothels (Innere Gefäßwand) Entstehung der Läsionen ist unklar Durch diese Schäden lagern sich Blutfette in die Endothelwand ein .
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Thrombophlebitis. Reflux esophagitis. Abdominal hernias. Possibly, hypertension and nephrotic syndrome. Osteoarthritis. A study by Losina et al found that obesity with knee osteoarthritis resulted in the loss of a substantial number of quality-adjusted life years. The association was most notable among black and Hispanic women. Focal .
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Many translated example sentences containing "hyperlipoproteinemia" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
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Bernhard Connemann currently works at the Clinic of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy III (Ulm), Ulm University. Bernhard does research in Psychiatry and Neurology.